As modern educators we must consider which technologies to use with what pedagogies for teaching specific content to particular students. This involves:

  • Knowing the existence, components and capabilities of various technologies as they are used in teaching and learning settings;
  • How teaching might change as the result of using particular technologies;
  • Understanding that a range of tools exist for a particular task, the ability to choose a tool based on its fitness and affordances;
  • Pedagogical strategies most suitable to use with particular technologies.

The 20th century question was ,‘Is there some form of technology readily available?’  Whilst, the 21st century question is ,‘ ‘Which one of an ever growing plethora of tools do I use?” As technological change is a constant, we need to have some key frameworks to examine our teaching practice and the tools that we and our students may use.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

TPACK attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). TPACK was created by Dr. Matthew Koehler and Dr. Punya Mishra in 2006.



S A M R provides a framework to answer the question of what types of technology use would have greater or lesser effects upon student learning. The name comes from the four levels of technology use that could be related directly to results in terms of what happened on the student side. S A M R was created by Dr. Ruben R. Puentedura's in the early 90s .

  • Substitution - Technology acts as a direct tool substitute with no functional improvement
  • Augmentation - Technology acts as a direct tool substitute with functional improvement
  • Modification - Technology allows for significant task redesign
  • Redefinition - Tech allows for the creation of new tasks, previously inconceivable


Further reading